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World’s First Rechargeable Cement Battery Could One Day Power Cities

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden have created the first rechargeable cement battery. One day, the work could lead to large concrete buildings that store and deliver energy like giant municipal batteries.

The cement batteries have an iron-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as the anode layer on top of a conductive cement-based mixture sandwiched by a nickel-coated carbon-fiber mesh cathode layer. The team added a small amount of short, electroplated carbon fibers to the cement mix to make it conductive.

For many years, researchers have pushed for more sustainable building materials, but the Chalmers group started working on futuristic building materials several years ago.

Research of concrete batteries is rare. The few previous efforts to make cement-based batteries weren’t rechargeable, and the output was meager.

The batteries from Chalmers have a lower average energy density than commercial batteries, 7 watt-hours per square meter (or 0.8 watt-hours per liter). However, the researchers believe their battery still outperforms previous concepts by more than 10 times.

The applications are many, including powering LEDs, providing 4G connectivity in remote areas, and even supporting infrastructure monitoring systems. For example, they could use solar panels to power sensors used to detect cracking or corrosion.

The ability to help monitor infrastructure seems particularly timely as a massive crack in the Interstate 40 bridge linking Arkansas and Tennessee shut down the major thoroughfare. Luckily, a routine inspection caught the “significant fracture,” but concrete batteries could one-day power sensors on parts of the bridge that are crucial for its integrity.

The proof of concept was still relatively small. The sample size was smaller than the multimeter, so it will take a bit of scale to get it to a 20-story building.

When it comes to alternative energy, what is one of the biggest arguments? Where are you going to store peak time power to be used during downtimes? The answer could be as simple as a massive battery building created to power our concrete jungles.

The Swedish Energy Agency funded the research, and the findings were published in the scientific journal Buildings.

Credit: Thomas Insights

How to tackle the common issue of rotary sluice of VRM feeding system?

If your VRM feeder is harassed by below issues:
1) high humidity of bulk materials
2) high wear of the rotary sluice
3) frequent stoppage due to stuck or jamming of the rotary sluice
4) high electric power consumption of ID fan system of your VRM
5)high content of O2 in your exhaust air of VRM emission end
6) Unsteady feeding of your VRM operation

It’s worth studying and reading this article!

The below plate feeder is designed to replace original rotary sluice. It is composed of a buffer bin and a sealed plate feeder. The natural stacking of bulk materials in the buffer bin helps prevent any false air admission.

According to the output of the mill and the set values of the buffer bin, a designed computer automatically adjusts the running speed of the plate feeder and adjusts the feeding rate of the blending stop all false air and guarantee smooth and even feeding.

No false air can pass the stacking of bulk materials in the buffer bin. Those bulk materials do not contact the equipment shell, which minimize the wear and damage that usually happened a lot in rotary sluice design.

This plate feeder design totally rip off the traditional design of rotary sluice. Thanks to its superior performance in false air prevention, and steady operation of bulk materials feeding, nowadays more than 300 of such units are applied in Chinese cement plants, for coal mill, raw mill etc.

Generally speaking, the false air prevention cause less electric power consumption in ID fan system. On average, 1.5kwh/MT feeding materials can be achieved through this design. The ROI can be as short as 6 months only because of this power saving advantage!

If you are interested in this technology, please write to for in-depth discussion.


Develop master procedures for heating up the pyro-line in a standard, safe and efficient manner (minimum transition periods, no aborted start-ups) while assuring the integrity of the equipment and the refractory and staying in environmental compliance. The procedures will address the quick compliance with clinker quality objectives.
Then, each plant would customize these master procedures to the specific characteristics of their equipment and develop more detailed checklists and SOP’s.

• Kiln Feed systems
• The kiln feed system should be run in a recirculation operation and calibrated is the system allows. If the system does not allow for a complete run, then a means of determining the readiness of the system should be developed.

• If no recirculation system is in place, then the feed system should be run for few minutes, checking for proper operation and system leaks.

• Test run the dust evacuation system including elevators, screws, pumps etc. Continue to run this system throughout the warm up.

• Cooler and Clinker Handling
• Test run all cooler drives and inspect for loose grates after running. Check the alignment of the cooler while running. Continue to run the system for at least 12 hours to ensure its mechanical integrity.

• The following equipment should also be run and checked: Clinker Cooler Breaker, Vent Fan, Cooler Fans, and all downstream clinker handling equipment. (I.e.: drag conveyors, belts, pan conveyors, gates etc.) All equipment must be checked for alignment, motor direction and automated control. Ensure that fan dampers or variable speed motors can operate at full range.

• Test the operation of all of the cooler Plattco valves and check for a good seal.

• Ensure the calibration of all pressure transmitters for the cooler fans.

I D. Fan
• Test run the I.D. fan and test for proper rotation, controls from the field and computer as well as check for leaks

• Coal Conveying system
• Test run the coal mill circuit and fans. Ensure that all of the damper controls are working properly.

• Test run the coal mill feed system as early as possible. If the system has been calibrated, initiate a method of verification of the weights.

• The entire coal mill circuit should be run as early as possible so that checks can be made for leaks. If leaks are present, they can be corrected prior to start up so that it will not be delayed.

• Kiln Baghouse or ESP.

• Follow the established start-up procedures (Process or Maintenance) for new bag installations. This will include any precoating procedures, leak tests or air load testing.

• Preheat System (These items to be done well before needed)
• Ensure all locks are removed from the system
• Verify all hoses and connections are in place for the fuel and air supply systems
• All valves in their proper positions for operation
• Ignition source ready and available at kiln hood
• Test run burner axial, swirl and transport air systems and check filters

• Material Flow Check for Preheater Plant

• Verify all tower chutes are clear by dropping mill ball through cyclone and chutes
• Verify all tower tipping valves are working properly. Open and close manually

• Burner Pipe Alignment
• Each plant should have a burner pipe alignment procedure that must be followed. The burner pipe should be aligned cold and then the position should be verified after all of the peripherals are connected. Failure to do this could mean improper alignment and thus inefficient fuel consumption, poor clinker quality and decreased refractory life.
• Common Pre-checks
• Ensure the proper direction or rotation of all fans, screws, conveyors, clinker breaker etc.
• Checks should be made on:
• Oil in reducers
• Equipment properly closed up
• Locks removed and switches in
• Auxiliary kiln drive motor function
• Check airflows on all fans that have been altered during the turnaround.

In short, a complete check sheet should be developed so that the plant can be assured that all of the required checks are completed on all equipment. The check sheets should include enough room for comments, assigned responsibility to one person and an area where the person responsible can sign his/her name indicating that the check is complete.

• Kiln Preheat Preparation:

• Burner pipe alignment
• Insert the burner pipe into the kiln with the kiln doors open.

• Ensure that the burner pipe is set at the desired distance into the kiln Record the distance of the burner tip into the kiln. The kiln expansion must be measured to determine the exact position of the burner pipe into the kiln.

• Once the burner pipe is set, hook up the axial, swirl and transport air lines

• When all air lines have been installed, the kiln hood doors can be closed

• When the hood doors are closed and secure, insert the laser level into the center of the burner pipe.(feed end)

• Make sure that the laser is set in the center of the pipe. This is accomplished by wrapping the end of the burner pipe with plastic. This allows for sight of the laser beam.

• With at least two people outside of the kiln and two inside, take measurements of the position of the laser beam at at least three places in the kiln. This should include the start of the burning zone (30 feet), the upper transition zone (80-85 feet) and on the feed shelf. It is important to know the thickness of the brick prior to measurement to determine the proper position of the burner pipe.

• Through radio contact, make the necessary adjustments on the burner pipe carriage so that the laser beam hits each point of measurement.

• Once the points have been met, it is important that there is no further movement of the burner pipe prior to start up.

• Measurements on the burner pipe carriage screws as well as pipe height relative to the concrete floor are to be taken and recorded as a reference prior to start up. These measurements should be checked periodically throughout the campaign.

• When the hood doors are closed, the area can be sprayed with a light coating of refractory to eliminate any inleakage of air.

The overall objective of this procedure is to know exactly where the burner pipe is in relation to the kiln.

• Kiln Refractory preparation
Purpose: To properly manage the installation of refractory during a scheduled or unscheduled shutdown, and to follow established procedures for preheating the kiln system for maximum brick life.

The refractory best practice should be consulted to determine proper method of preparation.

• The proper installation of refractory cannot be over emphasized as it plays a key role in the longevity of the lining. During a major turnaround it would be well for plants to consider hiring an experienced refractory installation specialist to supervise the ongoing lining replacement or ensure that the installer is familiar with the various installation techniques that are available.

Proper Refractory Preheating and Curing.
The following information has been collected from a large number of refractory suppliers used by Lafarge. This information should be used only as a guideline for proper refractory management. In all cases the plants should review the intended operating procedures with the refractory suppliers as the amount of refractory types and materials vary extensively.

Each plant should consult and insist on having a representative from the refractory supplier on hand during the installation and curing of the material chosen. This process is included in the purchasing agreement set up by a group buying team established through Lafarge in 1998.

• Burner pipe lining
• The following is a guideline for burner pipes using a formed castable refractory or a plastic rammed refractory.

Note: The poured castable refractory must be allowed to cure for a minimum of 24 hours before removing forms or attempting to properly bakeout the refractory.

• To properly bake out the poured castable or the plastic rammed refractory, the following schedule should be used as a guideline. All plants should check with their respective suppliers for specific curing schedules for various types of refractory.

The refractory lining should be increased from ambient to 200 degrees C at a rate of 50 degrees C per hour. The temperature should be held at 200 degrees C for one hour per inch of refractory thickness. The temperature should then be increased from 200 degrees C to 600 degrees C at a rate of 50 degrees C per hour and again held at this temperature for 1 hour per inch of refractory thickness. The lining should be allowed to cool back to ambient without induced draft. The burner pipe can now be installed in the kiln or put into storage if it is a spare.

• Kiln Preheat Schedule:

Parameters to be tracked during preheat
It is essential that plants have a preheating schedule determined prior to the start up. The start-up program, which mainly determines the kiln temperature increase per unit time and the timing of the introduction of raw feed, must consider a number of factors such as the type of refractory material, design of the kiln system, mechanical systems etc. The following points should be recorded during the preheat.

1.1.1. Preheater/Precalciner

• stage #1 exit oxygen
• Stage #4 or Precalciner temperature
• Feed shelf Temperature/kiln exit temperature
• Feed shelf or kiln exit oxygen
• Burning zone temperature(shell scanner)
• Tyre Creep
• Tyre temperature and the bearing temperatures
• Kiln hood pressure
• Fuel consumption
• Kiln turning schedule
• Thermal expansion of the kiln
• Monitor ESP/Baghouse (including gas & opacity analyzers) – turn on as soon as possible

Thermal expansion of the kiln

• Monitor ESP/Baghouse (including gas & opacity analyzers) – turn on as soon as possible

Tyre Creep

• Purpose of tyre creep control:
From a tyre creep point of view, the minimum heating-up period is determined by the time required to stabilize the temperature difference (and hence the clearance) between the kiln shell and the tyre, since the shell will heat up faster than the tyre.

Tyre # 2 is particularly critical. Too rapid heating can result in a constriction of the kiln shell, which will cause permanent deformation if the yield strength of the kiln shell material is exceeded. This in turn will cause excessive play in the tyre (tyre slip) after the normal working temperature is regained, as well as increased ovality of the kiln shell, a factor which may contribute to excessive refractory lining wear.

As a general rule, the tyre creep (the relative motion between the tyre and the kiln shell) should be monitored at regular intervals or continuously with a kiln shell scanner if available, manually if not. If the tyre creep is too low or non-existent, the heating-up process should be slowed down or interrupted until a measurable amount of relative movement is established. For this reason, the tyre creep may become the limiting factor in determining the heating-up schedule.

Every tyre has its specific designed cold clearance that allows a maximum temperature difference between the kiln shell and tyre during heating. If the temperature difference exceeds the maximum value during the heating-up schedule, the shell below can be plastically deformed due to restricted expansion. To avoid such a deformation, some plants have established artificial heating or exterior heating elements on the tyre themselves, or define a start-up sequence for the shell cooling fans. This allows for controlled heating of the tyre in line with the heating-up schedule for the kiln. The thermal expansion for each unit can be controlled so that deformation of the kiln or the tyre can be avoided.

Proper clearances for tyres during heat up will range from a minimum of 5 mm to a high of 25 mm.

• Procedure for tyre creep monitoring

Purpose and Scope:

To monitor and react to Kiln Tyre Slippage levels in order to prevent damage to the Kiln Shell, Tyre, and Refractory. It is important to note that all support tyres must be monitored during a preheat, however, the tyres in the area of the burning zone are the most critical and susceptible to temperature changes. Due to the potential for damage, this monitoring operation should be considered critical in a kiln start up with dedicated manpower provided.

Specific Points:

• Slippage and temperature measurements during a kiln startup should be taken in the field only. Do not rely on thermal imaging scanners for temperature or slippage indication during a preheat. Use thermostatic pencils when necessary. Slippage and temperature measurements must be taken at each tyre every ½ hour during a preheat.

• The temperature difference between the tyre and the shell must be less than 125 °C at all times during the preheat. The shell temperature must be taken on both sides of the tyre. The tyre temperature must be measured on the side of the tyre and not the rolling face. Measure both the uphill and downhill side of the tyre.

• If the temperature difference rises above 125 °C, hold the kiln heat input until the temperature falls below the 125 °C. When the temperature is below 125 °C, resume the preheating schedule.

• The minimum tyre slippage per kiln revolution is 8mm.

• If the kiln tyre slippage falls below 8mm/rev, hold the kiln heat input until the tyre slippage reaches 8mm / rev. At 8mm / rev, resume the preheat schedule.

• If the kiln tyre slippage falls below 5mm / rev decrease kiln heat input until the tyre slippage reaches 5mm / rev. Ensure that the shell and the tyre temperature are rising at the same rate. At 5mm +, hold the kiln heat input until the slippage reaches 8mm +, at this point, resume preheating schedule.

• If there is no measureable slippage, follow the instructions for slippage below 5mm/rev with aggressive moves on heat input. If slippage has not returned in ½ hour, shut down.

• If tyre slippage is in excess of 25mm plant personnel should investigate the shimming of the tyre. Excess slippage of the tyre can cause problems with kiln ovality which may result in shell, refractory and nose ring damage.


• From a mechanical point of view, the slower the preheat, the less chance there is to encounter a slippage problem.

• Closely monitor slippage during fuel transitions, i.e., Natural Gas to Solid fuels

An example of tyre creep monitoring is shown below:

Note: Tyre temperature is determined by taking the measurement on each side of the tyre. The recorded temperature should be the average of the two.

• The combination of tyre/shell temperature differences and slippage is extremely valuable information. Temperature OR Slippage alone is meaningless. Both parameters must be recorded for proper assessment. Modify record sheets accordingly to record this data every ½ hour.

• Consider external means of heating or cooling to assist with reduced or excessive slippage.

Source : unknown

TOPNEWER, a Energy saving solution provider from China to Cement Industry

Nowadays the world witness China to be the biggest cement production country in this globe thanks to the rapid and vigorous development of China’s infrastructure and real estate in the past 30 years (China Cement output : 2.36 billion ton in 2020, more than 55% of the world total). During the overwhelming growth, China’s cement industry took initiative to introduce world cutting edge technology and equipment to upgrade their production continually.Meanwhile, based on the giant production capacity, some companies with new technology or premium equipment rise up and are justified by the intense competition in Chinese cement industry. They study and adsorb the leading and update concepts of the world and roll out unique technology and equipment that are specially catering to the need of China cement plants. The technology and equipment feature : low cost but high performance, obvious energy saving, and improvement in capacity & economic benefit, effective environment friendly solution etc.

Topnewer, a technology oriented company, is committed to introduce these new technology and equipment to those cement plants out of china. In cement and construction lines, we have forged strategic relationship with some of these new technology and equipment suppliers in China. We are establishing a technological association to integrate the best Chinese cement technology and equipment companies. A platform is under construction through which we believe many overseas cement plants could find it possible that they can upgrade their production technology and equipment with much lower budget.

Historically, overseas cement plant especially those from developing country were more informative of technology and equipment from the western developed countries. Unfortunately, they lack of information channel to learn about Chinese cement industry. Many excellent Chinese technology and equipment companies actually can provide them with another alternative solution as compared with European supplier. For example, much less budget, but equivalent achievement. Some new technologies such as Reliable Ceramic Dip Tube for preheater cyclone, CGB for ball mill, Nano-Insulation-block as new refractories, etc are even fresh to the European cement senior specialists. These unique solutions originates from China, and have benefited many Chinese cement plants. We are working hard to introduce them to overseas cement plants, and believe our association will act as flagship for Chinese new technology and equipment.

Article by Mr. Elite Yang TOPNEWER Technology Development Co.,ltd – Directing Manager

The Importance of Spare Parts for Cement Plant Productivity

Do you have the spare parts needed in the event that your Cement plant (Raw Mill, Reclaimer, Stacker Klin, Cement Mill, packaging system) goes down? In the demand-driven world of manufacturing, spare parts are vital assets for maintaining productivity. Having spare parts readily available allows your company to meet or exceed your production goals, thereby ensuring on-time shipment and delivery of your products. In this article we’ll define what spare parts are, the different types of parts that require spares and the benefits of maintaining a stock of spare parts.

What Are Spare Parts?

By definition, spare parts include any interchangeable items that are available to replace ones that become lost, damaged or simply worn out over time.

Types of Parts That Require Spares

Identifying the types of parts that may need to be replaced on your equipment and planning in advance to stock each at an suitable level will help you maintain continuous production line operation. The three types of parts that require spares are:

Consumables – These are parts that wear out over time due to contact with materials, products or machinery and can’t typically be repaired. Parts that are consumable tend to be lower-cost and are stocked in multiple quantities. An example of this type of part is a brake pad – much like a car brake pad over time the pads will experience wear and need to be replaced.

Minimum critical – A minimum critical part is essential to your machine’s functionality and is typically unique to its operation. While these parts can be repaired, spares can’t be obtained through normal distribution channels and tend to have long lead times. This makes having spares on-hand essential in order to keep production moving. This type of part is most likely to be damaged or fail during transport, setup or startup. An example this type of part a seal jaw; because it is specially fabricated for your system, a special order or repair will need to occur for it to be replaced.

Long-term – These are the parts that may eventually wear out and require replacement after several years of use. These parts are typically repairable items and ordering lead times for spares will vary. An example of a long-term part that may need to be repaired down the road are drive rollers.

Why Maintain a Spare Parts Stock?

The two main benefits of maintaining a stock of spares are:

Reduced Downtime
Having replacement parts immediately available when an original part malfunctions or wears out can prevent a production line shutdown. This is especially true for parts that have a substantial lead time. In addition, there’s no guarantee your vendor will have the item(s) you need on the shelf, so keeping a supply in-house will eliminate the possibility of parts being unavailable.

No Excessive Expediting or Shipping Fees
Expediting fees can be substantial, especially when breaking into a pre-planned production schedule. It costs a great deal more to rush-ship a part than it does to place a standard order and have it sent via standard shipping.
Planning your spare parts orders will ultimately lead to less frustration, lower costs, and above all, sustained production for your operation.

Are you being ready to invest in spare parts for your Cement plant (Raw Mill, Reclaimer, Stacker Klin, Cement Mill, packaging system) equipment?

THE CEMENT (Spares & Services Deviation) makes every effort to keep pertinent spare parts in Panthers stock and available for immediate shipment, and will work diligently with you to meet all of your equipment spare parts needs.

Contact us today.

The reason of snowman and measures for prevention

What is a snowman?

The so-called snowman in the grate cooler is a name get from the image itself. In fact, it means the clinker accumulates under the rotary kiln before go through into cooler which become higher like a snowman. In severe cases, it can be blocked at the kiln outlet and the clinker can not move out.

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The main causes of snowman:

1. Improper coordination of cooler and rotary kiln

The horizontal position of the grate cooler and the rotary kiln must be coordinated to ensure that the longitudinal center-line of the grate cooler and the rotary kiln are offset by a reasonable distance. If there is no experience, designed the center line of the grate cooler and the rotary kiln on same line, it will cause frequent snowman to be built and affect the normal operation of the kiln.

2. There are more clinker flying sand or large amount of liquid phase.

For the pre-calcination kiln, if the calcination temperature is too high, it is easy to increase the clinker dust, that means more flying sand. At this time, the cooling efficiency is low and the dust cycle is intensified, which may cause the “red river” in the grate cooler. When it become sever it will cause snowman. Excessive high temperature or an increase in low melting point alkali components will also cause too much liquid phase. Excessive liquid phase combined with too much clinker dust, forming a floating layer, although The grate plate reciprocates as usual, but the clinker cannot be moved away. As the clinker of the kiln keeps falling, the snowman of the grate cooler is inevitable.

3. Improper operation of grate bed structure and kiln The structure of the grate bed of the grate cooler is unreasonable, the operation is unreasonable, the clinker has uneven particle size, all are the cause of “snowman”.

4. Improper raw material components A large number of production practices have proven that the improper components caused the flying sand phenomenon which is the main cause of the snowman in the cooler.

5.Secondary combustion of incompletely burned pulverized coal particles occurs. The “snowman” phenomenon occurs the main reason is flying sand, and the secondary combustion of pulverized coal is the second main reason. In the case of flying sand, in order to strengthen the calcination and increase the firing temperature, the amount of pulverized coal is generally increased. Due to the excessive amount of pulverized coal, it is easy to cause the incompletely burned pulverized coal to be wrapped in clinker. In the case of uneven fly ash clinker production, some unburned pulverized coal enters the grate cooler along with the clinker, under the influence of kiln rotation and high-speed air flow particles are segregated. Due to the high air temperature and sufficient oxygen content in the grate cooler, the incompletely burned pulverized coal particles undergo secondary combustion. The secondary high temperature and liquid phase appear on the surface. At the same time, due to the poor ventilation rate between the fine particles, the wind is not easy to blow through, and the fine particles cannot be cooled as soon as possible, causing it stick on the grate, resulting in a snowman.

6. Channeling raw materials will also form a pile of “snowman” phenomenon. The channeled raw materials contain a considerable part of unburned coal powder, which will also cause the separation of small and large particles. Because of the high oxygen density and high temperature in the caster cooler, The secondary combustion occurs, so that the clinker continues to react in the caster cooler, resulting in a liquid phase on the surface of the fine clinker or the clinker particles that have been burned through, and the phenomenon of “snowman” when the fan cannot blow through. The situation may be: the high temperature zone is moved forward excessively, the secondary air temperature is too high, and the material at the front of the caster cooler is not discharged in time with the negligence during operation. Under the condition that the clinker has not completely lost the liquid phase, Part of it is sticky, which makes the materials pile up naturally, forming a loose “snowman”.

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How to prevent and take measures.

1. Arrange the relative positions of grate cooler and rotary kiln correctly.

2. Stabilize the thermal system in the kiln, avoid excessive kiln temperature and liquid phase quantity, and carefully observe the fire

3. Improve the structure of grate bed;

4. The high-sulfur raw coal is limited to the factory and used together to ensure that the SO3 in the pulverized coal entering the kiln does not exceed the standard;

5. Appropriately reduce n rate value, increase Fe2O3 content in clinker and ensure clinker granulation.

6, kiln head to reduce coal properly, reduce the temperature of burning belt

7. Ensure the matching of wind coal, reduce the moisture of coal powder and avoid incomplete combustion.

8. It is strictly prohibited to burn the top of the fire in a short time, stretch the flame appropriately and reduce the atmosphere.

9. Adjust the shape and position of the flame to prevent coal dust from joining the clinker;

10. Appropriately increase the kiln speed and shorten the residence time of materials in the sintering zone;

11. Increase the cooling air volume, start the air gun, and explode the material;

12. If the kiln is seriously stopped, clean it manually from the side inspection opening.